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Basic knowledge of PCB board

  • Author:o-leading
  • Source:o-leading.com
  • Release on :2018-11-13


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1. It is strictly forbidden to use the grounded test equipment to contact the TV, audio, video and other equipment on the backplane to detect the PCB board without the isolation transformer.

It is strictly forbidden to directly test the TV, audio, video and other equipment without power isolation transformer with the equipment grounded with the outer casing. Although the general tape recorder has a power transformer, when it comes to a special TV or audio device that has a large output power or a poor understanding of the nature of the power supply used, it is first necessary to find out whether the chassis of the machine is powered or not. The TV, audio and other equipment with the bottom plate are short-circuited by the power supply, affecting the integrated circuit, causing further expansion of the fault.

2, inspection PCB board should pay attention to the insulation performance of the soldering iron
It is not allowed to use soldering iron for welding. To confirm that the soldering iron is not charged, it is better to ground the soldering iron shell. Be careful with MOS circuit. It is safer to use 6~8V low voltage circuit iron.

3. Understand the working principle of integrated circuits and related circuits before testing PCB boards.
Before checking and repairing an integrated circuit, you must first familiarize yourself with the functions of the integrated circuit used, the internal circuits, the main electrical parameters, the function of each pin, and the normal voltage of the pins, the waveform and the working principle of the components of the peripheral components. If the above conditions are met, analysis and inspection will be much easier.



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4, test the PCB board does not cause short circuit between the pins
When measuring voltage or testing waveforms with an oscilloscope probe, the test leads or probes should not be short-circuited between the pins of the IC due to sliding. It is best to measure on a peripheral printed circuit that is in direct communication with the pins. Any short circuit in any moment can easily damage the integrated circuit, and you should be extra careful when testing flat-package CMOS integrated circuits.

5, test PCB board test instrument internal resistance should be large
When measuring the DC voltage of the integrated circuit pin, you should use a multimeter with an internal resistance greater than 20KΩ/V. Otherwise, there will be a large measurement error for some pin voltages.

6, the detection of PCB board should pay attention to the heat dissipation of the power integrated circuit

The power integrated circuit should have good heat dissipation, and it is not allowed to work under high power without a heat sink.


7, to detect PCB board leads should be reasonable
If it is necessary to add external components instead of the damaged parts inside the integrated circuit, small components should be selected, and the wiring should be reasonable to avoid unnecessary parasitic coupling, especially to deal with the grounding between the audio power amplifier integrated circuit and the preamplifier circuit. end.

8, inspection PCB board to ensure welding quality (HDI PCB  manufacturer china)
It is welded firmly during welding, and the accumulation of solder and the pores are likely to cause solder joints. The soldering time is generally less than 3 seconds, and the power of the soldering iron is applied to the internal heat type of about 25W. The soldered integrated circuit should be carefully viewed. It is best to use an ohmmeter to measure whether there is a short circuit between the pins, and confirm that there is no solder adhesion and then turn on the power.

9, do not easily determine the damage of the integrated circuit PCB board
Do not easily judge that the integrated circuit is damaged. Because most of the integrated circuits are directly coupled, once a certain circuit is abnormal, it may cause multiple voltage changes, and these changes are not necessarily caused by integrated circuit damage. In some cases, the voltage of each pin is measured and normal. When the values ??match or are close, it does not necessarily mean that the integrated circuit is good. Because some soft faults will not cause a change in DC voltage.